Almost everything you own and use for personal or investment purposes is a capital asset. Examples include a home, personal-use items like household furnishings, and stocks or bonds held as investments. When a capital asset is sold, the difference between the basis in the asset and the amount it is sold for is a capital gain or a capital loss.
Do you have questions about reporting gains and losses on your tax return?
Additional information on capital gains and losses is available in Publication 550, Investment Income and Expenses, and Publication 544,Sales and Other Dispositions of Assets. If you sell your main home, refer to Topics 701 and 703, and Publication 523, Selling Your Home
Here are some facts from the IRS about Capital Gains and Losses:
- Almost everything you own and use for personal purposes, pleasure or investment is a capital asset.
- When you sell a capital asset, the difference between the amount you sell it for and your basis, which is usually what you paid for it, is a capital gain or a capital loss.
- You must report all capital gains.
- You may deduct capital losses only on investment property, not on property held for personal use.
- Capital gains and losses are classified as long-term or short-term, depending on how long you hold the property before you sell it. If you hold it more than one year, your capital gain or loss is long-term. If you hold it one year or less, your capital gain or loss is short-term.
- Net capital gain is the amount by which your net long-term capital gain is more than your net short-term capital loss. Net short-term capital gains are subject to taxation at your ordinary income tax rate.
- The tax rates that apply to net capital gain are generally lower than the tax rates that apply to other income and are called the maximum capital gains rates.
- If your capital losses exceed your capital gains, the excess can be deducted on your tax return, up to an annual limit of $3,000 ($1,500 if you are married filing separately).
- If your total net capital loss is more than the yearly limit on capital loss deductions, you can carry over the unused part to the next year and treat it as if you incurred it in that next year.
- Capital gains and losses are reported on Schedule D, Capital Gains and Losses, and then transferred to line 13 of Form 1040.
Quick Tax Facts About Capital Gains and Losses
Capital gains rates are designed to encourage long-term investing. Most people can get a significant advantage from holding stock investments for more than one year:
Short term gains on stock investments are taxed at your regular tax rate; long term gains are taxed at 15% for most tax brackets, and zero for the lowest two.
For more information about reporting capital gains and losses, get Publication 17, Your Federal Income Tax, and Publication 550, Investment Income and Expenses, available below or by calling 800-TAX-FORM (800-829-3676).
Links related to reporting Capital Gains and Losses:
Publication 17, Your Federal Income Tax
Publication 550, Investment Income and Expenses (PDF 516K)